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[雅思经验] 雅思8.5大神总结 细致到爆

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5920808 发表于 2016-11-16 12:31:19 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
本文已经包括各种经验分享、复习计划;
常用句式词组、作文写作分析、8篇常见topic范文;各种高分连接词组、大小两篇作文通杀;
雅思写作的误区、所需词汇、
17个不能回避的雅思写作问题
经过三个月的复习总结和4次的实战,我总结了17个关于雅思写作不能回避的核心问题。这17问题一直贯穿在我整个复习的过程。相信只要弄明白这17个问题,我觉得我们离写作7分就无比接近了。对于那些即将参加42日,416日,57日等鸭友团来说,我觉得要搞懂问题12678136个问题最为迫切。如果能做好的话,分数一定能提高的。
1. 考官是怎么改卷子的?标准是怎样的?
2. 雅思写作7分是什么样的概念?
3. 雅思写作6分与7分或者6.5分与7分的距离有多远?
4. 怎么制定雅思写作复习计划?
5. 考试前需要写多少篇的大作文和小作文?
6. 写作模版管用吗?
7. 雅思写作需要背多少个词汇?
8. 雅思写作需要什么样的句型?
9. 雅思写作需要多复杂的从句和语法?
10. 我们对雅思写作的误区
11. 鸭友们通常会犯哪些语法错误,能有效避免吗?什么样的语法错误是致命的?
12. 雅思写作能速成吗?平时需要多看英文报纸吗?
13. 小作文重要吗?容易写吗?应该怎么复习
14. 怎么安排大作文和小作文的写作顺序和时间
15. 要买参考书吗?什么样的参考书?
16. 参加培训班管用吗?
17. 网络上面所谓的名师雅思写作预测有用吗?
复习计划
有个完整的、按部就班的、循序渐进的复习计划是雅思考试成败的关键。在过去的三个月时间里,由于有大部分时间在悉尼喜来登酒店实习(20101122日到2011218日),所以没全身心投入到雅思复习当中,真正full time复习雅思的话,一共用了2周。而且由于一开始缺乏信心,以及对雅思写作有着一种难以言喻的恐惧,复习计划在刚开始的时候一直都左右摇摆,朝令夕改。经历了前两次烤鸭大战(12
11日和122日)无功而返之后,我重新检讨了自己的复习计划。我发现自己出现了以下几个问题(不知道你们会有这样的感觉,反正我觉得以下的想法都是不正确的)
从一开始复习就习惯性地把雅思写作task2 划分为八大类:教育类,社会类,科技类,政府类,环保类,发展类,犯罪类。  基于这种划分,然后开始盲目地查找相关的雅思单词,接着盲目地背诵默写。  后来觉得单单记住单词也不管用,就开始盲目地从范文和报纸中按照这八类topics的划分摘抄各10句的万能句子。  再后来又发现单单这80句万金油句子或词组还是不能完整覆盖所有的雅思题目,然后又开始盲目
地开始了大包围题海战术,从网络中下载了2009年和2010年全年所有的雅思写作题目,然后开始准备每个题目的观点和内容
再再后来,我发现自己已经力不从心了,因为工作量实在太大了,而且就算是自己已经准备好的
题目,过两三天之后,又想不起来了。此时此刻,陷入了整个雅思写作复习的最低潮:感觉很迷茫,很无助,开始抱怨一分耕耘却没有半分的收获
到了第二次雅思考试出成绩的时候(201125日),我彻底失望了,没想到经过了6周的复习准备写作还是6分。于是,我觉得将之前的雅思复习计划推倒重来。这个一次转变,对于个人而言,不亚于当年的十一届三中全会啊。经过和朋友(特此鸣谢Peter)的讨论和研究,我总结了以下一条逻辑关系              
这是什么意思呢?我觉得如果把原来按照范畴来划分的8大类topics‖作为起点的话,我很容易被导向去背观点背单词,却正正忘了雅思写作的本质(这是我自己总结的,可能不对,将就一下吧):运用恰当的语言去表达个人的思维逻辑。语言只是辅助工具,思维逻辑才是主线和抢分点。
何谓题型?其实雅思写作task2题型一般有三大类:reportargumentation ―report + argumentation‖ 的结合体。
1.
2.
3. report:只有三个要素:   cause influence  solution
也就是说,要么就是问你这个现象产生的原因,要么就是这个现象产生了什么样的影响(积极或消极的),要么就是叫你提出解决方案。通常report类的文体,不会同时出现以上三个要素,只会有一到两个的配搭,即:causeinfluencecause+solutioninfluence+solution,或
只问influence (如下面我写的一篇7分文章,问effects on individuals and societies)。所以呢,在这种题型底下,它的结构就非常的单一:开头段+ 原因分析段(一般分析3个原因)+ 影响
d src="/pic/view?ih=rn=100doc_id=17b507fb0242a8956bece49eo=jpg_6_0_______pn=1iw=ix=sign=5b206f0da860ec42d42efd7b2b3055e4type=1iy=aimw=app_ver=2.9.8.2ua=bd_800_800_IncredibleS_2.9.8.2_2.3.7bid=1app_ua=IncredibleSuid=cuid=fr=3Bdi_bear=WIFIfrom=3_10000bduss=pid=1screen=800_800sys_ver=2.3.7"alt="牛人总结【雅思7.5以上经验】63大页超详细" />
分析段(一个列举3个影响)+ 解决办法段(这些解决办法一定要对应于之前分析的原因或者影响)+ 结尾段。这个结构是应该视情况而定(as the case may be)
 argumentation:一般有三种问法:
1. discuss both views and give your ownopinion
2. to what extent do you agree or disagree
3. do you think the advantage outweigh thedisadvantage
   按照我自己的看法的话,其实argumentation就是两种,那就是1 2/3(因为23
以看成同一类)。这两种有区别吗?当然有了,你看,问题都不一样(哈哈,是不是一句废话)。其实这不是一句废话,因为discuss both views and give your own opinion,是要你先分析双方有什么合理之处,然后再给你自己的个人观点。很明显这是需要均衡结构。什么意思?意思是,假如你支持观点1用了三个论点,然后到你支持观点2的时候也得同样用三个论点(想不到的话,憋你也得憋出来!!!),最后在结尾清晰表达你自己的最后看法。对于这种题型,开头段也是表明观点,例如some people argue···, while others claim that···. I personallybelieve that···
所以呢,这个文体的结构应该是:开头段(回应题目+表达自己的观点)+ 支持观点1n个论点)+ 支持观点2n个论点)+ 结尾段(表明自己的观点)。请注意,这个题型是不能用一面倒的,是不能啊!
至于agree/disagree oradvantage/disvantage 题型,根据考官的推介,最理想的结构是:开头段
+让步段+ 支持段(论点1+ 支持段(论点2+ 结尾段(表明你自己的观点)。万一想不
出让步段,或者时间太紧了来不及让步,可以吗?考官说了,允许便秘,憋不出来也是可以的!!!!也就是说,在这种情况下,可以使用一面倒,而且不影响你拿7分(假如你的目标分数是8分,就当我瞎说吧)。
说了那么多,究竟跟复习计划有神马联系呢?这个联系就大咯!题型决定了文章的结构,而结构呢又决定了观点的铺排,观点又反映出个人的思维逻辑关系(中立的,积极的,否定的,因果的,让步的,建议的。这就是我下面所归纳的那160+句型,它们完全覆盖了你能想到的所有逻辑表述),这种逻辑关系就决定了你用什么样的句型了,
dsrc="/pic/view?ih=rn=100doc_id=17b507fb0242a8956bece49eo=jpg_6_0_______pn=1iw=ix=sign=5b206f0da860ec42d42efd7b2b3055e4type=1iy=aimw=app_ver=2.9.8.2ua=bd_800_800_IncredibleS_2.9.8.2_2.3.7bid=1app_ua=IncredibleSuid=cuid=fr=3Bdi_bear=WIFIfrom=3_10000bduss=pid=1screen=800_800sys_ver=2.3.7"alt="牛人总结【雅思7.5以上经验】63大页超详细" />
点,有一条的脉络。举个例子,在写 what are the influences if the gap between the poor and the rich iswidening. 我会选择这么一种方式记单词
贫富悬殊扩大The widening disparity between the rich and the poor--影响influence
两极化 polarizecommunity – 激化社会矛盾intensify the social conflict – 社会对立 social
incompatibility – 心理问题 inducepsychological problem – 仇富心理 result in hatred for the
wealthy – 自卑心理suffer frominferior mentality – 行为过激 aggressive behaviour – 游行
protest – 罢工strike – 强烈抗议outcry – 暴乱riot – 反政府反社会anti-government/
anti-society – 发泄不满 givevent to their anger and dissatisfaction – 增加犯罪 drive up the
crime rate
社会不公平 socialinequality – 更可能获得公共资源have more access to public resources –
其他人更容易获得社会特权acquire special privilege over the poor – 进一步分化社会,加剧社会仇恨 Further polarize the society and fuel social hatred – 产生恶性循环thereby creating a
vicious circle
这么记单词的话,思路就会更加清晰,而且避免了为了使用某个大词而妥协了某个观点的做法。重要的是,单词不再是一个孤立的点,而是一条有机的线
这就是我的记单词方式。其实说准确一点,应该说,这就是我编写自己单词库的方法。我觉得每个人都应该他们自己的单词库。不加思考地背别人的单词库的结果是自己被辐射了,成为了别人单词库的一部分。这就是为什么到现在我都没有upload我的雅思词汇汇总。退一万步说,我觉得我们也应该有这种能力,一种能绕开某个词也能清晰表达自己观点的能力。
说到这,你应该开始变得有信心了,甚至豁然开朗。因为这时候,你的复习计划变得异常的具体和量化了。
复习计划:本人觉得雅思考试之前需要写大概1520篇雅思写作task2。只有足够的练习才能更好地形成你的写作习惯和写出自己的风格(也就是个性化的模版)。本人考试前是每天写两天篇,如果不自信或者焦虑不安或者更年期症状发作的时候,一天写4篇。而且时间尽可能压缩在30~35分钟完成。允许自己每次写完都有时间重新阅读和查漏补缺。其实啊,重点不在写,而是要看看自己理顺了思路没有,熟悉了文体没有,阐明了你所想的逻辑没有,用上了应该用上的句型没有····假如有一天(其实也就是两周之后的某一天),你突然发现,你已经十有八九了,那你就成功了~~这是一种未出发先兴奋,未考试先激动的感觉,这是一种成功的预兆。哈哈,你的更年期已经结束了~~~!!!
说了这么多,应该对你们有帮助了吧?为了给你们写这么多东西,我可是交了634块澳元的两次雅思考试费用。这样学费真的很贵啊~~
总之,无论是平时练习还是真正的实战,应该先审题,尤其是大作文。认真阅读题目,划出关键字,一定要紧紧围绕题目的问题和它所隐含的内容去思考。最好先用23分钟把自己的写作框架简单地下来,然后才动笔。大作文应该控制在35分钟写完,小作文应该在18分之内结束。剩下的5分钟应该通读小作文和大作文各一遍,重点看看自己有没有犯语法错误(重点看我下面关于常犯的低级和致命语法错误)。要知道,在交卷之前,对于文章的观点和结构,你已经不能有什么作为了,唯一能给你加分,或者说,能让你减少被扣分的机会的就是减少不必要的语法错误了。至于先写大作文还是先写小作文,应该根据个人的喜好和习惯。记住,平时练习的时候就应该严格地执行这些步骤。只有这样,才能在紧张的考场里做到有条不紊。
在准备雅思的过程当中,或许很多人都会像我曾经那样不惜一切代价地去买所谓的名师参考书,因为我们都会自觉不自觉地自我游说:1450块的考试报名费都交得起了,还介意那几十块钱的参考书费吗。其实,有时候想想,我们买的书越多,证明我们越不自信;而且参考书一多,复习计划就会更乱。所以,到目前为止,我只觉得以下几本书稍微有点价值
1. 慎小嶷《十天突破雅思写作》
优点:比较系统地总结了雅思写作的方方面面,而且我最欣赏它的地方是让烤鸭的必备词汇量降
到最低。
缺点:想想当全中国80%以上的烤鸭都人手一本的时候,它就不再是烤鸭战场上的大规模杀伤
性武器了。
2. 慎小嶷《十天突破写作完整真题库》
优点:比较系统地收集和归类不同类型的雅思题目,我最欣赏它的地方是它能让考生觉得原来9
分作文都是不外如是,而且我们能很好地找出差距。
缺点:看了这本书,你会很容易地掉进那个大包围的题海战术,你会有意无意地想把所有topics
都写了,你会有意无意地背诵别人的观点和9分范文。这样的复习方法是致命的。
注意:以上仅仅属于本人观点和切身感受,也并非为某作者卖广告。我觉得吧,除了上述这四本书,其他的话,可以放到微波炉里面烤一下,看看有没有烤鸭的味道~~~嘻嘻
每次考雅思前我都一直留意着慎小嶷和中国雅思网预测。经过我接近半年的观察(201010月到20113),那些预测基本无效。所以迷恋名师预测、提前准备、然后考试打算默写的模式,绝对不是一个好方法。但是写作预测确实为我们提供了很好的练笔机会,而且基本上那些预测涵盖了8大类的题目(即教育类,社会类,科技类,政府类,环保类,发展类,犯罪类)。所以,我建议利用他们的写作预测来练笔,而且一定要按照topics循环来写。我的意思是,比如说今天写关于社会类和教育类的,明天就应该写环保类和政府类,后天就写发展类和犯罪类等。千万不要轻信那些预测里所说的什么月份通常考什么类别的题材的无病呻吟。
对于没有参加过雅思考试或者基础不是太好的人来说,参加培训班能够帮助自己全面地了解雅思考试,快速形成自己的复习方案,这没什么好说的。但是对于那些已经考过34的烤鸭来说,对于是否参加所谓的写作7分班、VIP班、冲刺班这个问题就变得很纠结。不参加,心里不踏实,总觉得自己缺了点什么;但是参加过后,又可能觉得进步不明显,浪费了金钱和时间。在这里,我可以肯定的说,我们要给自己多一点自信,单单靠自己的实力足以应付雅思写作,足以拿7分了。其实很多中国写作老师有一个通病,在上课的时候,喜欢妖魔化剑桥雅思的批改老师,喜欢打击同学的信心;在评改作文的时候,喜欢侃侃而谈地说这词用得不好那句写得很烂,却忽略真正雅思写作评分标准。而且他们还喜欢吹牛,喜欢把自己的经历传奇化,英雄化。说实在,IELTS writing is no a big ideal and I firmly believe that all of uscan successfully conquer it. 所以呢,对于已经是身经百战的老鸭,只要你肯努力下苦功,一定能考过的。
TASK 1 小作文
曾经一直忽视小作文,甚至认为雅思写作约等于是写一篇250字的大作文。轻视它的原因可以归结为,字数少(只要150),不需要个人观点(纯粹描述客观figures),有固定的单词和句型,分数只占总分的1/3···直到后来与考官见面的时候,我才意识到小作文的杀伤力。This is especially true when it comes to those who only got band 6.5but indeed demand band 7.0。有时候,6.5分到7分的距离,小作文起了决定性的作用。
按照剑桥雅思的分类,小作文可为:柱状图(bar chart),饼图(pie chart),曲线图(line graph),表格(table),地图(map)和流程图(processing chart)。当然,这只是按照这些图表的属性和特征来归类。为什么我要费那么多笔墨在这个人所共知的问题上面呢?经过我1个月的练习和研究,我发现,如果按照这样的归类,我们得总结出6套相对应的模版(句型和词汇)。其实这样是吃力不讨好,事倍功半的,因为这样的归类方法严重地影响了我们的复习方案和练习计划,而且并没有很好地反应出task 1的本质要求。我的个人认为,应该把柱状图,饼图,曲线图和表格看作一个总体,然后区分出是纵向比较还是横向比较(下面会继续解释它们的区别和应对方案);然后地图题是一类,流程图是另外一类。也就是说按照本人的经验,task1 小作文按照图表的本质应该分为:横向比较,纵向比较,地图题和流程图。
由于雅思写作task 1中,柱状图,饼图,曲线图和表格占了绝大多数,所以这个板块应该作为复习的重点。每当我们拿到题目的时候,我们第一件事应该做什么?对,看图表(果然是一句废话)!!其实我的意思是,我们得首先观察它们究竟是:不同物体在同一时间点的比较(即横向比较),还是单一物体在不同时间点的比较(即纵向比较)。这一点非常非常非常非常非常重要!!!因为不同的比较,有着不同的内在比较关系。详细分析如下
横向比较:由于没有时间的变动,因此不存在物体或数据的波动,也就是说,那些描述变化趋势、描述变化特征的词汇和句型完全不适用。此时此刻,我们要focus的是
首先我们要找出极值(最大值和最小值)  然后客观地、略有筛选地描述剩余数据(若数据太多,则有所侧重;若数据不多,则全部描述)  接着就是高潮了--找出不同数据之间的共同特征和大小比较(比如说,谁和谁一样大/小,谁是谁的几分之几,谁是谁的多少倍)  高潮过后,就需要有一个意犹未尽但有心无力的总结
纵向比较:顾名思义,就是由于时间的推移,不同物体和数据之间发生了量的变化,也就是说,这时候关于描述变化趋势和变化特征的词汇和句型就用得上了。此时此刻,我们要concentrate的是
首先客观描述变化的大体趋势(是升高了还是降低了,是多了还是少了)  然后描述变化的具体特征(是怎样增加的,是怎样减少的,幅度如何,速率如何)  接着找出变化趋势相似的不同物体,然后客观描述一下,以减少单词和词汇的重复使用,避免啰嗦  同样,这里也需要一个纵横全局的归纳和总结
说了那么多,估计你们也看烦看腻了。毕竟很多人都想着一蹴而就,想着尽可能多背单词多抄句型。好吧,闲话不多说,上货!请大家验明正身!!
程度副词
多于:More than, just over, over
少于:Less than, just under
几乎:Approximately, almost, nearly
完全:Exactly, precisely
表示列举data/information句型
1. Overall, A has the largest number of名词(NO1) and Bthe smallest (NO2). C and D both have NO3; E has NO4.
have similar profiles.
2. A has the most+名词+doing(NO1); B is next with NO2, while C has NO3. D and E have (相同) NO4 each
Sweden CAD (9); Spain 3. According to thepie chart, A, which is %, is the most···among the total···, then next is B with%, followed by C, making up %; and finally come E, F and G at %, %, %respectively. According to the pie chart, chicken, which is 40%, is the mostpopular among the total meat sold, then next is pork with 20%, followed bybeef, making up 18%; and finally come lamb, fish and other at 15%, 5% and 2%respectively.
纵向比较
1. Experience/witness/see/enjoy+修饰词(最高级)+增加/减少/震荡
Experience/enjoy + a significant/the mostdramatic + decrease/increase
增加: increase, growth, rise       减少: decrease, drop
快速: dramatic, drastic              缓慢: gradual, steady, slow
大幅: significant, substantial      小幅: moderate, slight
震荡: considerable/marked/sharp/minor fluctuation
2. The number of··· was No1 in Yr androse/reduced by % to No2
The number of miles that car traveled was3199 in 1985 and rose by 50% to 4806 in the subsequent years.
增加/上升: increase, rise, grow        急促上升: jump,soar to, surge to
减少/下降: decrease, drop, decline   急促下降: plummetto, plunge to
3. 主语+上升/减少 to···  or  主语+上升/减少 by
4. The percentage/proportion/number of is 修饰词 larger/smaller than that of
修饰词   明显:substantially, obviously    轻微: slightly,moderately
5. A 修饰词 increase/decreaseoccurred
修饰词  大幅:considerable, significant, substantial  小幅: moderate,slight
6. 表示不变的状态:主语 remainconstant/unchanged/stable/steady at
表示趋势的句型
1. there is a downward/ upward/ opposite/general/ dominant trend
下降的/上升的/相反的/总体的/主要的趋势
2. ···tend to be more/less preferred   倾向越来越受()受欢迎
As can be seen from the table, walk andcertain short-distance transportation, such as cycled and local bus tend to beless preferred.
3. There is a considerableincrease/decrease in···
There is a considerable increase in totalmiles by all modes of transportation, compared with the data (4,740 miles) in1985.
表示比较增长或减少趋势
B also rose/increased/grew during thisperiod, but less sharply
decreased/declined/dropped
The sales of games software Sales increasedfrom about 13 billion dollars in 2000 to just under 20 billion dollars threeyears later.
表示相同相似变化趋势的句式
A similar situation was seen in the···,where  the number of women rose fromabout 550 000 in 1975 to almost 800 000 two decades later.
There are some similarities between A and B
Be similar to/ A has something in commonwith B
表示变化特征的词汇
dsrc="/pic/view?ih=rn=100doc_id=17b507fb0242a8956bece49eo=png_6_0_0_135_435_652_301_892.979_1262.879pn=1iw=ix=sign=5b206f0da860ec42d42efd7b2b3055e4type=1iy=aimw=app_ver=2.9.8.2ua=bd_800_800_IncredibleS_2.9.8.2_2.3.7bid=1app_ua=IncredibleSuid=cuid=fr=3Bdi_bear=WIFIfrom=3_10000bduss=pid=1screen=800_800sys_ver=2.3.7"alt="牛人总结【雅思7.5以上经验】63大页超详细" />
表示超过的词语
Outnumber ···多,在数量上超过
In this profession, women outnumber men bytwo to one.
= there are twice as many women as men 在这个行业,女性人数是男性的两倍
The number of men outnumbered women by fourto one. 我们的人数以41超过他们
Exceed 超过···数量
The price will not exceed $100.
Overtake (在数量或重要性方面)大于,超过
Nuclear energy may overtake oil as the mainfuel.
表示连续的时间段
1. over a span of ··· years
= over the period from···to···
= in the years between···and···
2. during the same period
3. in the No. years spanning from 19xxthrough 19xx
= from···to···within the 5 years period
4. from then on
= from this time onwards
= in the subsequent years.
横向比较
1. ···程度副词 doubled/trebled三倍/quadruple四倍/halve减半(NO. vsNO.),
while···doubled/trebled/quadrupled/halvedwhich were 数字(年份) and 数字(年份)
respectively.
The figure by long distance bus more thandoubled during the same period (54 miles vs. 124 miles), while the miles bytaxi trebled which were 13 miles and 42 miles respectively.
2. 表示―A 占总体的多少―AB···―AB···分之···"
3. ···数字(A+B), of which Awere···and B were···
Italy received 20 million visitors, ofwhich 1.2 million were from the UK and 1.8 million were from the USA.
4. ···had a higher/lower total number of 名词than any ofthe other+名词
France had a higher total number ofvisitors than any of the other countries on the list.
表示比较的句型
1. likewise, 句子.  同样地,···
Likewise, the use of other, unspecified,forms of transport also increased.
2. By contrast/In comparison, 句子.  相反地,···
By contrast, the long distance vehicleenjoyed a significant increase over the period, spanning from 1985 to 2000,although there exists some differences.
In comparison, student expenditure incountry C was considerably lower, at only US$1500 per year
3. compared with the data (数字) in 年份, 句子.   ···相比较,···
Overall, there is a considerable increasein total miles by all modes of transportation, compared with the data (4,740miles) in 1985.
4. ···had half/twice/triple·times as many 可数名词 as···,but/yet the number of···and ···was the same.
dsrc="/pic/view?ih=rn=100doc_id=17b507fb0242a8956bece49eo=png_6_0_0_135_111_652_391_892.979_1262.879pn=1iw=ix=sign=5b206f0da860ec42d42efd7b2b3055e4type=1iy=aimw=app_ver=2.9.8.2ua=bd_800_800_IncredibleS_2.9.8.2_2.3.7bid=1app_ua=IncredibleSuid=cuid=fr=3Bdi_bear=WIFIfrom=3_10000bduss=pid=1screen=800_800sys_ver=2.3.7"alt="牛人总结【雅思7.5以上经验】63大页超详细" />
Australia had half as many visitors asThailand (3 million vs 6 million), but the number of visitors to thosecountries from the UK and the USA was the same, 0.3 million.
5. 句子, while 句子.
12 million Americans visited Canada while5.5 million visited Mexico.
6. ···had a higher/lower total numberof···than any of the other+名词复数
France had a higher total number ofvisitors than any of the other countries on the list.
表示―%‖的词语
百分比:percentage, proportion, share
高:High, large – highest, largest
低:low, small—lowest, smallest
表示%‖的词组
正向:A constitute/occupy/account for/compose/comprise B   AB%
负向:% of B be composed of A  (总体)%(某一元素)
% of 名词 be composedof   (总体)%(某一元素)
Around 15% of our diet is composed ofprotein.  我们的饮食中大约有15%的蛋白质
composes (某一元素)构成总体的%
Christians compose around 2.5% of thecountry’s population 基督教徒占这个国家人口的2.5% Comprise  构成
Older people comprise a large proportion ofthose living in poverty.
Constitute 构成
Constitute around 60% of the total/a largerpercentage (around 20%) of
Constitute the majority of the labourforce.  占劳动力的大多数
Occupy 占据
Dry lands occupy a third of the world’ssurface. 陆地占了地球表面的三分之一
Account for (数量上,比例上)
The Japanese market accounts for 35% of thecompany’s revenue.  日本市场占公司收入的35%.
对了,差点忘了,要区分数据是data 还是 percentage.这个决定了相对应的词汇
dsrc="/pic/view?ih=rn=100doc_id=17b507fb0242a8956bece49eo=png_6_0_0_135_228_652_244_892.979_1262.879pn=1iw=ix=sign=5b206f0da860ec42d42efd7b2b3055e4type=1iy=aimw=app_ver=2.9.8.2ua=bd_800_800_IncredibleS_2.9.8.2_2.3.7bid=1app_ua=IncredibleSuid=cuid=fr=3Bdi_bear=WIFIfrom=3_10000bduss=pid=1screen=800_800sys_ver=2.3.7"alt="牛人总结【雅思7.5以上经验】63大页超详细" />
dsrc="/pic/view?ih=rn=100doc_id=17b507fb0242a8956bece49eo=png_6_0_0_135_503_652_400_892.979_1262.879pn=1iw=ix=sign=5b206f0da860ec42d42efd7b2b3055e4type=1iy=aimw=app_ver=2.9.8.2ua=bd_800_800_IncredibleS_2.9.8.2_2.3.7bid=1app_ua=IncredibleSuid=cuid=fr=3Bdi_bear=WIFIfrom=3_10000bduss=pid=1screen=800_800sys_ver=2.3.7"alt="牛人总结【雅思7.5以上经验】63大页超详细" />
如果大家能够熟练地掌握我上述的总结和归纳的话,相对对于以上四种图表一定能够得心应手了
地图是最近比较流行的题目,本人连续考的4次雅思写作里面,居然有两次都是地图题(1211日和226日)。不过对于应付这种题型,大家不用害怕,其实没什么大不了的。慎小嶷最近的新书《十天突破
写作完整真题库》里面的DAY 1O(page 297~318),有详细的归纳。以下内容均为摘抄该书的章节。恳请大家尊重别人的知识产权,在没有得到原作者允许的情况下,请勿用于商业用途~~
表示―A位于
A is located/situated/lies···
A is just off the road to···  A就在通向某地的路边上
A is right at the center of··· A就在···的正中央
表示―A靠近或者紧挨着B‖:A is next to/near/close to
表示―A在距离B某一面···公里处
A islocated/situated/lies···kilometers/miles to the east/west/north/south of B
表示―A位于B内的某个部分
A is located/ situated/ lies in theeastern/western/northern/southern part of B
表示―AB的某个角上
A lies/is located/is situated on/at the east/west/north/south/cornerof B
表示剩下的部分:The rest of the···
表示道路通向/河流流向某处‖: The road runs from···to···
The river runs/ flows from···to···
表示沿着河流/道路‖: Along with river/road  Alongside the river/road
表示―A在道路或者河流的某一侧
A is located/situated/lies on the north/southside of the river/ the road
e.g. situated on the south side of theRiver Thames, this hotel offers its guests an ideal location in central London
表示―AB仅一河之隔/仅一路之隔‖: A is right across from B
表示―A在道路或河流的南北端
A is located/situated/lies on the north/southend of the river/the road
表示―AB的对面‖: A is opposite B
表示―AB某一侧的边界上
A is located/situated/lies on theeastern/western/northern/southern border of B
表示―AB某侧的边缘上
A is located/situated/lies on theeastern/western/northern/southern edge of B
表示―A朝北/朝南/面朝公园等
A faces north/south
A faces towards the north/ the south
A faces a park
表示斜向的方位‖:
东北 north-east        东南 south-east
西北 north-west        西南 south-west
表示建筑物的布局:Layout
指一个建筑物周边的环境:The surroundings of a building
表示―A占据了某个空间A occupies
表示A由几个不同的部分组成:A consists of/ is composed of/ is made up of B, C and D
表示A的长度是:The length of A is···=A is···in length
表示A的宽度是:The width of A is···=A is···in width
表示A的面积是:A is···in area
The farm is 50 kilometers in area
The building almost doubled in floor area.
表示大约:approximately, roughly, about, around
表示一块地:a patch of land/ a stretch of land
表示从延伸到·A extended/ stretched from···to···
The park extended from Main Street to KingGeorge Street
This period stretched from themid-eighteenth century to the late nineteenth century
表示比较,···所不同的是
Unlike A, B
Compared with A, B
A···while/ whereas B···
In comparison/ in contrast/ by contrast, B
表示可以使用available
表示可以容纳can accommodate
表示理论上讲:in theory, theoretically, hypothetically
表示但事实上:but in reality/ however, realistically/ yet in practice/ but infact/
as a matter of fact, though
表示在某处建造了AA was built in=was constructed in=was established in
表示在某处又增建了AA was added to=an addition was made to···,which was A
表示改动原建筑或原场地:v. change/ modify/ remodel
n. change/modification/remodeling
表示A被改造成了BA was turned into/ was transformed into/ was converted into B
表示A被搬走或拆掉:A was removed/ demolished/ taken down from···
表示AB取代了:A was replaced by B/ A made way for B
表示A的面积缩小:the size of A was reduced to only half of/ one third of the originalsize
表示A的面积扩大: A was expanded to twice its size=the size of A almost doubled
表示AXX方向延伸:expand/extend northward/southward/eastward/westward
表示A经历了:A experienced/ witnessed/saw
起初:at first=initially=in the beginning=originally
接着:then=next=after that=in the following stage=in the next/subsequentperiod=afterward 在这个阶段:at this point=in this phase=in this stage
最终:finally=eventually=in the end
对于流程图,本人从来没有准备过。我觉得没必要捡了芝麻丢了西瓜。毕竟它出现的频率很低,而且几乎很难准备。有见及此,对于那些在考试当中遇到流程图的烤鸭们,我只能说:不要慌,不要怕,前面就是天堂,一路走好!!
TASK 2 大作文
知己知彼,百战百胜,所以考官是怎么改卷子的,他以什么为标准的评分的尤为重要。经过朋友的介绍,我认识了Steward,他是一位资深的写作老师和改卷老师,在悉尼大学语言中心工作(那些在悉尼的朋友,如果想找他的话,请给我留言,我有他的联系方式)。我上了他两小时的课,他帮我改了12篇大作文和2篇小作文。我觉得这短短的两小时,远远比上什么新东方新航道环球雅思什么保7班精品班重要得多得多。after all,很多中国雅思老师还是处于意淫阶段。
看着他改了12篇文章,发现他改作文的模式非常非常的mechanical,他说考官一般会在1小时内改六份作文(including task 1 and task2),那就是说平均5分钟改一篇。在这五分钟里,他就死死地盯着评分规则,从task response, coherence and cohesion, lexical resources,grammatical range and accuracy 这四个方面评分。而且让我无比深刻的是:雅思是一门语言能力考试,它侧重于测试学生的语言表达能力,而不是思维能力。记住:核心词是语言表达!!
以下是雅思写作的7分标准
(a). task response:
 addresses all parts of the task  presents a clear position throughout thereponse  presents, extend and supportsmain ideas, but there may be a tendency to over-generalise
and/or supporting ideas may lack focus.
用中文最简单的理解是:首尾都要回答问题,允许泛泛而谈。这就是说,我们没必要花太多的精力去考虑观点是否绝对严谨是否意义深刻,关键是要告诉考官你的思考逻辑。这就是剑桥雅思的魅力,它要考你的不是你的思维能力,而是你的语言表达能力。哪怕在ridiculous的观点,只要你能用最恰当的语言去表达,你也可以同样得7分(当然,如果你的目标是8分,你就当我痴人说话吧)。还有就是说,很多题目本身包含很广泛的概念,很多大学教授用十几万字都解释不清的关系,怎么就能让我们这些门外汉用三言两语就解释好呢。说了这么多,我想说的是,如果你从一开始就习惯背诵满分作文,习惯复制别人的观点,这样的复习方法会很吃力(我不敢说是错的,那是确实低效,甚至有赌博成分),事倍功半。毕竟我们都是正常人,我们都有自己的思考能力和理解能力,我们说的每一个观点都是make sense,不make sense的是我们没把那个观点说清楚。
(b). coherence and cohesion
用中文最简单的意思是:分段分点,每点之前必须有连接词。这一点非常非常容易达到(我总结了大量这样的词汇,明天或者后天上传上来)。然后那个考官最为推介的范式(以argumentation的题目为例,因为report类的文章更死板了):开头段+主体段(让步一段,支持(反对)两段)+结尾段。其实说白了,就是我们最熟悉不过的模版。也就是说,模版是非常有用的,之所以变成没用(serve no helpful purpose)是因为用模范的那个人没有用(想起粤语里面的一句歇后语,叫太监撒尿)。至于怎么用模版才能变得不落于俗套,下文回答问题7的时候会有详细分析。 logically organises information and ideas, there is clearprogression throughout  lises a range ofcohesive devices appropriately although there may be some under-or overuse  presents a clear topic within eachparagragh
(c). lexcial resource
用中文最简单的意思是:足够就好,不需要多;一两个大词就够,不需要滥。一说到单词,相信我们并不陌生,甚至认为学英语就是背单词,写作就是单词的选美与堆砌。尽管我们都知道这是不对的,但是依旧默默地坚持着,比如说背诵一大堆同义词代换,一大堆除了莎士比亚见过之外其他人都没见过的大词。这样的复习会很累而且会逐渐把雅思写作从逻辑表述变成词汇大杂烩。至于何谓是足够的单词,何谓是less common lexical items,这就是问题6的范畴了。经过我写了大概30篇雅思作文,我觉得我们需要的词汇其实真的不多(我的词汇表一定会upload上来,估计在明天或者后天)。我想说的是,记单词最好的方法是,把单词放到句型或者例句上面来,然后句型或者例句一定要与雅思写作topic 相关。如果不相关,证明那个词就算记住了,也不会用。 uses a sufficient range of vocabulary to allow some flexibility andprecision  uses less common lexical itemswith some awareness of style and collocation may produce occasional erros in word choice, spelling and/or wordformation
(d). Grammatical range and accuracy
 uses a variety of complex structures    produces frequent error-free sentences  has good control of grammar and punctuationbut may make a few mistake
用中文最简单的意思是:句子结构多样性和允许语法错误的存在。对于句子结构多样性,这一点,我觉得我们中国学生肯定没问题的,什么定语从句,什么名词性从句,什么状语从句,倒装句,虚拟语态,被动语态等,我们只会过犹不及。从我的个人经验来看,我有时候会把定语从句和同位语从句搞乱(并不是我
们不知道有什么不同,而是一紧张就很容易忽视了)。说到语法错误,我可以说,我们中国学生最最最常犯的语法错误都是非常低级(请参考part.4内容)。
(a). 雅思写作必备连词--只要掌握了这些连词,就能符合到
coherence and cohesion 7分以上的要求
以下为英语写作(雅思写作,学术论文等)必备的连词汇总。以下的内容参考了悉尼大学本科学生
orientation handbook里面关于如何preparingfor essays的总结,再加上本人的积累。有些连词与下面的句型汇总重合,请以句型汇总为重点。对于应该雅思写作和大学学术论文绝对绰绰有余,希望能帮助大家。
为了更好地分享我的经验,我将以下的词语划分成三组
用下划线highlight的是适用那些总感觉雅思写作写不长、写不满250字、需要灌水的同学   用粗体highlight的是适用于那些每次都写得太长、写爆格,务实的同学   用斜体highlight的是适用于那些有强烈大词欲,渴望用大词整死考官的同学
 To signal sequence or addition
Accordingly, actually, additionally,afterwards, again, alsoas well asbesides thiscorrespondingly,further,furthermore, in addition, in a like manner, in the first place, in the sameway, including, initially, last, likewise, more importantly, moreover, next,originally, overall, primarily, similarly, to begin with, too, what is more.
 To signal time
After, afterward, as long as, at first, atlast, at length, at the same time, before, concurrently, currently, during,finally, following, immediately, in the future, in the meantime, , later,
meanwhile, next, once, presently, rarely,simultaneously, sometimes, subsequently, then, this time, until, until then,whenever, while.
  To show results
Accordingly, as a result,consequentlyotherwise, owing to, resulting from this
dsrc="/pic/view?ih=rn=100doc_id=17b507fb0242a8956bece49eo=jpg_6_0_______pn=1iw=ix=sign=5b206f0da860ec42d42efd7b2b3055e4type=1iy=aimw=app_ver=2.9.8.2ua=bd_800_800_IncredibleS_2.9.8.2_2.3.7bid=1app_ua=IncredibleSuid=cuid=fr=3Bdi_bear=WIFIfrom=3_10000bduss=pid=1screen=800_800sys_ver=2.3.7"alt="牛人总结【雅思7.5以上经验】63大页超详细" />
  To introduce evidence/support/reasons , to affirm this, to attest to this, to corroborate, to explain, tofurther confirm, to further verify, to list, to substantiate this, insubstantiation.
  To signal repetition, summary, or conclusion
Accordinglyconsequently, finally, ,hencesummation, on the whole, overall, since, so, summing up, then, therefore,thus, thus we can see that, to conclude, to recapitulate, to repeat, to review.
 To introduce causes or effects
Accordingly, as a result, because,consequently, due to, for as much as, for that reason, hence, in as much as, inthat, in view of, on account of To contrast,
After all, although, alternately, and yet,at the same time, be that as it may, bu, contrastingly, conversely, despite,dissimilarly, even though, for all that, however, in contrast, in contrast tothis, in nevertheless, nonetheless, notwithstanding,otherwise, paradoxically,rather than, regardless of, still, though, whereas, when in fact, yet.
  To compare
Also, analogous tolikewise, similarly.
  To clarify
In other words, that is, that is to say,this means that, to clarify, to elaborate, to explain, to paraphrase,    To show purpose  for the purpose, with this end, to the endthat, with this objective
  To dismiss
All the same, at any rate, either way, inany event, in either case, whatever happens.
  To signal concession
Admittedly, albeitgranted, it may appearthat, knowing this,    To signify acondition
Granting thatso long as
  To prove examples  for example,for instance, in particular, in support of this, notably, to demonstrate, toelaborate, to exemplify, to highlight, to illustrate, specifically, that is.
  To reference
Concerning this   To emphasise
Above allmostly, notably, obviously, ofcourse, particularly, primarily, specifically, truly, undoubtedly.
(b). 雅思写作必备同义词代换--只要掌握了这些连词,就能游刃有余地驾驭我们想要表达的观点,满足lexcial resource 7分要求对于雅思写作,总有那么一个问题绕不开,那就是我们究竟需要积累多少个单词才能写出一篇能够完整表达我们观点的文章。有的老师说最起码要有6级的词汇量,有的老师(慎小嶷)说熟记286个单词就足够~~根据本人的经验,我觉得在一开始备考的时候,完全没有必要去考虑我们究竟需要多少个单词,因为在没有练笔就开始记单词的情况,我们的思路往往受我们所记过的单词的影响。在这样的惯性下,我们很可能很生硬地套用单词,而不是自然而然地抒发观点。我觉得只有在自己平时充分练笔(我自己大概写了30多篇雅思作文)的前提下,我们才知道我们自己究竟需要什么样的单词和词组,需要多少的同义词代换~~我的经验是:不要让单词成为自己的负担,最好是边写边积累,毕竟我们不是考GRE。哪怕是GRE词汇的巨人也可能成为雅思写作的侏儒~~关键是用词准确到位,清晰表达观点
以下是经过我30篇雅思写作练笔之后总结出来的75组必备的同义词代换,如果能熟练掌握,必定能让你们在驾驭和阐述观点的时候变得游刃有余~~其实不单单是为了雅思写作,出国留学不能避免的就是每个学期排山倒海的individual assignmentsgroup works,相信以下的词汇对大家是有帮助的。
中性动词
1. 导致:v. cause, bringabout, give rise to, lead to, generate, create, Be a contributing factor to
2. 认为:v. point out,argue, claim, assert, think, consider
3. 强调:v. emphasize,bring/call attention to, accentuate, heighten, strengthen
4. 集中:v. focus on,concentrate on
5. 解决:v. combat,address, tackle, resolve, solve
6. 从事:v. carry out,conduct, perform
7. 承认:v. concede, admit,acknowledge, accept, allow, grant
正向动词
1. 支持:v. support, advocate,agree with
2. 增加:v. increase, grow,rise, enlarge
n. increase, growth, rise, enlargement
3. 改善:v. improve,enhance, upgrade, boost
n. improvement, enhancement, boom
4. 扩张:v. expand,enlarge, extend, widen, broaden
n. expansion, enlargement, extension
5. 提高:v. augment,increase, develop, intensify
n. augment, increase, development
6. 发展:v. develop,advance, grow, evolve, flourish
n. development, advancement, growth,flourishing
7. 产生:v. develop, comeinto being/existence, come about
8. 获得:v. acquire, gain,get, obtain, attain
9. 执行:v. implement,execute, put into effect, perform
n. implementation, performance
10. 实现:v. achieve,fulfill, gain, accomplish, attain
n. achievement, accomplishment, attainment
11. 开始:v. commence,begin, start
n. commencement, beginning, start
12. 促进:v. promote,further, advance, encourage, stimulate, foster
n. promotion, advancement
13. 鼓励:v. stimulate,encourage, act as stimulus, motivate
n. encouragement, incentive, motivation
14. 唤起:v. arouse, cause,induce, prompt, trigger, spark off
15. 需要:v. call for,demand, require
16. 取代:v. replace, takethe place of, substitute for
n. replacement, substitution for, in placeof
17. 加快:v. accelerate,speed up, quicken
n. Acceleration, speeding up
18. 减轻:v. abate, lessen,reduce, alleviate, mitigate
n. abatement, lessening, alleviation,mitigation
19. 保护:v. protect,preserve, conserve
n. protection, preservation, conservation
20. 保卫:v. safeguard,defend, shield
n. safeguard, defence, shelter
21. 建立:v. establish, setup, found, construct
n. establishment, foundation, construction
22. 遵守(规则,法律)abide by,comply with, follow, respect, act in accordance with
23. 允许:v. allow, permit,give the means to, facilitate
负向动词
1. 反对:v. object, raiseobjections, oppose
2. 减少:v. decrease,lower, reduce, cut down
n. decrease, reduction, drop, decline
3. 耗尽:v. deplete,exhaust, use up
n. depletion, exhaustion, using up,
4. 阻碍:v. hamper, hinder,obstruct, impede, inhibit
n. hindrance, obstruction, obstacle,impediment
5. 限制:v. limit, curb,restrict, place a limit on
n. limit, restriction
6. 危及:v. endanger,imperil, jeopardize, put at risk
7. 衰败:v. deteriorate,degrade, degenerate, rot
n. deterioration, degeneration
8. 恶化:v. exacerbate,aggravate, worsen, inflame
n. exacerbation, aggravation, worsening
9. 加剧:v. intensify,escalate, sharpen, aggravate
n. escalation, intensification, aggravation
10. 破坏:v. damage,destroy, ruin, devastate
n. damage, destruction, ruin, devastation
adj. devastating, destructive
11. 污染:v. pollute,contaminate
n. pollution, contamination
12. 败坏:v. pervert,corrupt, deprave, lead astray, debase
13. 扭曲:v. distort,pervert, misrepresent, falsify, misstate, misreport
14. 削弱:v. weaken,undermine, impair, invalidate
15. 干涉:v. interferein/with, intervene in, impinge on/upon(侵犯)
n. interference/intervention/involvementin/with
16. 侵犯:v. encroachon/upon (time/rights/personal life)
n. encroachment on/upon = impinging on/upon
17. ···相违背/相矛盾:runcounter to = run contrary to
Contradict (each other)= conflict with = beat odds with sth
18. 误解:v. misunderstand,misapprehend, misinterpret
n. misunderstanding, misapprehension,misinterpretation
19. 逃避:v. escape, breakout, evade, elude
20. 遭受:v. suffer from, bestricken with, be afflicted with
21. 违反:v. violate,disobey, transgress, infringe
n. violation, infringement, contravention,breach
22. 忽视:v. lose sight of,ignore, neglect
23. 疏远:v. alienate,isolate, become/get estranged from
n. alienation, isolation, estrangement
其他重要的同义词代换
1. 大量的:enormous,massive, tremendous, considerable
2. 重要的:significant,substantial, crucial, important
3. 严重的:adj. severe,serious, acute, drastic
adv. severely, seriously, acutely,drastically
4. 有害的:adj. hazardous,dangerous, harmful
5. 贫穷的:adj. poor,poverty-stricken, destitute, impoverished
6. 富有的:adj. rich, wealthy,affluent
7. 差距:n. gap, disparity,divergence
8. 积极的:beneficial,advantageous
9. 消极的:baneful,detrimental
10. 明显的:manifest,obvious, evident, apparent
11. 影响:impact,repercussion, effect, ramification
12. 人类:the human race,human being, humankind, humanity
13. 当代:in currentsociety, in this day and age, in present-day society, in contemporary society
14. 传统的:traditional,conventional, old-fashioned
15. 健康的:healthy,vigorous, robust
16. 有营养的:nutritious,nourishing, wholesome, healthy
常用的正向形容词
Adequate/ basic/ broad/ general/ sufficient充分的/ 基本的/ 宽泛的/ 大概的/ 足够的 Penetrating/ profound/ revealing/ remarkable/ proper/ thorough
入木三分的/ 深刻的/ 发人心省的/ 出色的/ 正确的/ 彻底的
Original/ unique/ fresh/ rare/ clear/fascinating/ interesting
独到的/ 独特的/ 新鲜的/ 少有的/ 清楚的/ 生动的/ 有趣的
Significant/ substantial/ considerable
常用的负向形容词
Unethical/ immoral/ unscrupulous/unprincipled 不道德的
Antisocial/ unacceptable/ undesirable 反社会的/ 不能接受的/ 令人不快的
Aggressive/ criminal/ disruptive/ violent 挑衅的/ 犯罪的/ 扰乱的/ 暴力的
Notorious/ appalling/ vicious/ bloody 臭名昭著的/ 令人震惊的/ 令人发指的/ 血腥的
(c). 雅思写作必备写作单词--这一项是最虚最模糊的一项。不同的人因为有不同的观点,因而需要不同的独特单词。(如果时间紧迫的同学,请先参考慎小嶷的《十天突破雅思写作》,如果时间宽裕的朋友,请按照我在复习计划里所说那样自我总结单词串来记忆,按照8大类topics来总结)
(a). 雅思写作低级语法错误
(1) 冠词a, an, the的乱用,少用,多用。(对于这个问题,考官说了,this mistake is insignificant and it takes time for people to avoidit)。结合自身经验,就算我自己真的看了语法书,我们也同样会继续犯错,但这个错误不影响我们拿7分(当然也不能每句话都错一两次)
(2) 名词单复数。这个问题很普遍,特别要搞清楚哪些名词是可数的,哪些名词是不可数的,哪些名词是既可数又不可数(可数与不可数表达不一样的意思),哪些名词是单复数同形,以及哪些词可以修饰可数,哪些只能修饰不可数。这就需要积累。特别是平时写作的时候,刻意留意这个问题,在有疑问的单词打圈,然后写完之后马上查词典。以下是从网络上找来的,很管用的总结。
单数名词不能单独存在,一般前面应该有限定词修饰。  不定冠词a/an永远只能修饰单数可数名词。  everyeach永远只能修饰单数可数名词。但every+数词+复数名词是正确的,如:every ten years  序数词后面一般使用单数可数名词。  anther永远只修饰单数可数名词。但another+数词/few+复数名词是正确的,如:anothereight years;another few books  other通常修饰复数名词,也可修饰不可数名词。,如Henry Smith is taller than any other student in his class.  下列词和短语只能修饰复数名词these,those,many,various,several,numerous,diverse,few,a few,both,a(good/large/great) number of,numbers of,one of 大于1的词数只能修饰复数名词!!牢记的结构:one/two/many+of+限定词+复数名词!! 只能修饰单数可数名词的词:one,anther,a/an,this,that,each,every,either,such a,many a !!注意!!manystudent以及many a student  只能修饰复数可数名词的词:>1的数字
(two,six.....),hundred,thousand,million,both,several,many,few,afew,these,those,a
(good/large/great) number of, numbersof,the numberof,numbers
of,numerous,various,diverse,a series of,awide range of,a collevtion of
只修饰不可数名词的词:much,little,alitter,a great deal of,a great amount of,a piece of,an article of  既可修饰不可数又能修饰可数的词:
all (of)          a lot of        some (of)      lots of              any (of)
plenty of      most (of)     half (of)        a wealth of      (a) part of
enough (of) the rest of   other            one third of      such
no                a variety of
(3). 主谓一致:这个语法最好上百度百科,那里的分析非常详细。我发现经常犯主谓一致的错误是
当主语后面有as well as,with, along with, together with, but, like, rather than, except
等引导的短语时,谓语动词要与最前面的主语保持一致.
 "half of, the rest of, most of, allof及百分数或分数+of 等后接名词"作主语时,谓语动词形式
根据of后的名词而定.
(4). 动词的时态问题,现在时,过去式,过去分词的问题。
(5). 标点符号的运用:千万不要出现满篇作文全是逗号的中国特色社会主义现象。一个句子当主谓宾完整出现就是一个句子。更加不要用叹号。
(6). 不要用缩写:例如don't, can't,won't等。一旦出现缩写,证明你太业余太随意了,一点都不学术。
(b). 雅思写作致命语法错误
(1). 句子成分缺失,通常是缺谓语(由于谓语用了动名词或者过去分词)
(2). 定语从句和同位语从句的混淆(特别容易在引导同位语从句时,误以为引导定语从句)
(3). 定语从句与状语从句的混淆(例如where,when等引导的从句需要特别注意,要清楚其在句子中的成分)
(4). 在使用倒装句时,请注意助动词提前。如果不熟练,那就请你不要用了。
(a). 雅思考官是不太在乎你是用一面倒还是先让步再支持
记得在悉尼海外东方学院的J老师说过,现在一面倒已经很难甚至不能拿7分了。我问了一下考官,他给我的答复非常的straightforward,无论让步还是一面倒,都是可以拿7分,关键是reasonably explain and extend your idea.
(b). 雅思写作中只要是问opinion的题目(包括‖discussboth
views and give your own opinion―‖to whatextent do you agree or disagree"),开头和结尾都要表明观点
记得还是悉尼海外东方学院,还是那个名师‖J,他说在写‖discuss both view and give your opinion‖‖ to whatextent do you agree and disagree‖的开头是不要一样的。前者不用一开始就表明你自己的opinion,后者才需要。但是雅思考官给我的回答是:―you should preview the question and give you opinion
immediate so that the examiners can easilyunderstand what you are going to argue‖.这就是说慎小嶷《十天》里面最喜欢的开头了,介绍背景+分析双方观点+表明自己态度;也就是说用模版。
记住三个英文单词
―explain‖,―extend‖or―example‖
你或我总会那么一个时候,想到了一个观点但是不知道怎么论证,或者不知从哪一个点开始论证。其实很简单,要么你就说为什么这个观点会产生,要么你就说这一观点所产生的影响(积极或消极),要么就举例子说明观点的存在性。无非就是这么三种思考方向。假如一篇文章你有4个观点,只要上述三项各用一两次,文章看起来更加有可信度,句型就自然而然变得有多样性的。
!!!重点推介···雅思写作必备句型!!!说到这,我就分享一下怎么才能让模版看起来不像模版。最立竿见影的方法是总结和归类句型。经过我三个月的复习和总结,我发现雅思作文无非就是以下几种关系:开头句型,插入语和连词,中立关系,积极关系,消极关系,因果关系,建议关系和结尾句型。我总结超过160个句型,而且我所有文体(report类,argumentation类,综合类),几乎所有领域(教育类,社会类,发展类,环保类,犯罪类,科技类等)都写过了,而且所写的文章经过考官批改都是至少7分,有几篇8分。我这就是归功于我平时积累的这些句型。而且在上次226日的考试(题目应该算是比较难的,小作文地图题+社会类粮食方面的大作文)中,我用了36分钟去写地图题,只剩下24分钟写大作文,我当时都很害怕,害怕写不完。但是我总结的句型帮了我一大忙。我用了20分就写完了,最后得了7.5分。并不是我在吹牛,我只是想说,学会用以下句型,既可以保证你有稳定的发挥,又可以有效的避免语法错误,而且还能把大词很自然而然地就写出来了,一点都不造作。
还有,我想说的是,这里没有所谓的7分句型或者什么6分句型。我觉得这样划分只会导致我们盲目地背诵高分句型而忽略它实际的用法和语境。什么是高手?高手就是用最简单方式表达最准确的意思。你们可以根据自己的喜好和习惯,自己选择。还有,再好的句型,如果不能很随心所欲地从自己笔下写出来,那只能证明那个句型还不是属于自己。这就需要平时刻意的运用,每写完一篇之后再回过头来看看,有哪些更恰当的句型没有用上。经过多次的trial and error,这些句型就会变成你以后show off的资本了。我怎么变得这么啰嗦啊,说了这么多还没有上货。对了,还有一点,对于以下所有句型和单词,我都查过牛津高阶词典和柯林斯大词典,语境和用法基本是正确。很多都配上例子,如果发现有错的,希望大家提个醒,我会马上纠正。
如果觉得要记上这160+的句型很吃力的话,或者觉得下周就要考试了,来不及熟悉用法的话,我用红色highlight了我最最最常用的,最最最喜欢的而且最最最万金油的句型
适合discussion问题的开头
The issue/ discussion/ topic/ problem/subject about/ of (whether 从句 or how + 不定式) is of great interest/ concern/ importance/ significance to/ for···
has triggered/sparked off an intensecontroversy in the realm of···
 The issue of···is of great interest to···
e.g. The issue of whether the practice ofrequiring students to wear school uniforms will affect their personality andindividuality is of great interest to many people.
 The topic of···is of great concern for···
e.g. The topic of whether it is appropriateand effective to use corporal punishment on young children is of great concernfor many people.
 The subject of···is of great importanceto···
e.g. The subject of how to resolve theproblems caused by the rapid development of technology nowadays is of greatimportance to many scientists.
 The discussion about···is of greatsignificance to···
e.g. The discussion about the mosteffective way to provide financial and technological supports to third-worldcountries is of great significance to both industrialized and developingcountries.
 The question of···is a matter of muchcontention among  The problem···has beenwidely debated in the world of···  Theinquiry into··has triggered/sparked off an intense controversy in the realmof···  e.g. The inquiry into the moralityof conducting various researches and experiments on human cloning has triggeredan intense controversy in the realm of science
对于人类克隆研究与实验的道德性所作的研究已经引起了科学界的激烈争议
适合agree/disagree问题的开头
 Although it is commonly believed that···,this is actually not the case
e.g. Although it is commonly believed that conventional views about a healthylifestyle and proper conduct are no longer relevant to young people’s needstoday, this is actually not the case.
 Although it is widely accepted that···,this is simply untrue in our day-to-day
experiences
 Although it is generally acknowledgedthat···, this can hardly be held true in many
real-life situations.
 Although conventional wisdom has itthat···, the reality of the situation is often far
more complicated than that.
虽然传统大众观念认为···,但是现状却远比这种观念要复杂得多
 Although the received opinion is that···,the harsh realities usually turn out to be a
completely different picture
虽然大众普遍接受的观点是···,但是无情的现实往往显现出不同的图景
e.g. Although the received opinion is thatschoolchildren generally benefit from watching television and using otherhigh-tech media in their learning process, the harsh realities usually turn outto be a completely different picture.
 Although many people subscribe to thebelief that···, this is in fact a common
misconception that we need to clear up
虽然许多人认同这样的观点:···,但是事实上这却是一种我们需要澄清的普遍错误观念
e.g. Although many people subscribe to thebelief that providing public library facilities and services is a waster oftaxpayer’s money, this is in fact a common misconception that we need to clearup.
 Although most individuals are convincedthat···, this is actually a popular myth that
must be exploded.
虽然大多数人坚信···,但这却是一种我们必须揭穿的普遍错误观点
e.g. Although most individuals areconvinced that their happiness is closely linked with the level of theirfinancial success, this is actually a popular myth that must be exploded.
表示趋势的句型
There has been a growing trend that···
an interesting tendency that/of···
a common practice of/that···
a widespread phenomenon that···
e.g. There has been a widespread phenomenonthat students from rural areas find it increasingly difficult to have access tocollege or university education.
 Recent decades have seen an increasedawareness of···  Recent decades havewitnessed a major transformation in···
e.g. Recent decades have witnessed a majortransformation in agricultural development, where industrial technologies arebeing employed and new varieties of crops are being created, yet, opponents ofthis development have raised a number of difficult questions. From my point ofview, this is a really complicated matter, and we need further investigationsto understand the whole picture.
It is worth mentioning that···   值得一提的是  It is by no means certain that···   完全不能确定的是  It is far too soon that···   为时过早的是  It is not uncommon that···   不足为奇的是  It is undeniable that···   不可否认的是  It is unavoidable that   不可回避的是  It is obvious/ evident/ manifest that   明显的是  It is gradually borne in on sb that   逐渐被某人认识到  It is of great interest that···   广为兴趣的是  It is of paramount importance that···   首要的是  It is of great urgency that···   刻不容缓的是  It is + 副词 +suggested/argued/advised/believed that   普遍认为  It is widely accepted that     It is generally/commonly believedthat   普遍相信的是
表达观点的句式 It is universally acknowledged that   众所周知的是  It is strongly/commonly suggestedrecommended/ advised that   强烈建议的是  It is sometimes argued that   有时候争论的是  There is/was little/no substance that ···几乎毫无/没有根据  It is no without substance that ···并非没有根据
 Advocates of······的支持者  Opponents of······的反对者
Point out/ argue/ claim声称/believe /assert断言/ declare宣称/ conceive设想 that
表示趋势的句型
There has been a growing trend that···
an interesting tendency that/of···
a common practice of/that···
a widespread phenomenon that···
Recent decades have seen an increasedawareness of
witnessed a major transformation in
表示强调某种状态在特定明显或不明显的句型
This is especially true if/when we considerthe fact that/when it comes to/in terms of   当我们考虑··的时候,这一点尤为正确
It is not even always true that···      ···并不是总是正确的
Incline to = tend to   倾向于
Gain/get/have(direct/free/ready/unlimited/unrestricted/restricted/equal)access to
获得/得到直接/自由/容易/方便/不受限制/受限制/平等/接近的机会
e.g. Men and wowen should have equal accessto education and employment.
Be accompanied by   B 伴随 A
Be entitled to = be eligible to = beauthorised to   使享有权利,使符合资格
e.g. the privately insured are entitled tospecial benfits such as having the choice pf their own doctors, and being ableto avoide long waiting lists for hospital beds.
Have and will continue to   现在是并且将来也会继续···
e.g. Education has been and will continueto be central to the country’s economic performance in the 21st century.
Give rise to = bring about = create =generate = provoke(负面的) = evoke  引起,造成  e.g. Computers have brought about manychanges in the workplace.
Have/exert an influence/impact/effect onsb/sth  ···作用
Play a role in sth   扮演···角色
正面:Considerable/enormous/dominant/profound/crucial/beneficial(favourable)/
stablizing/pervasive/substantial/lasting/formative
相当大的/巨大的/起支配作用的/深远的/有利的/稳定的/广泛的/实际的/(对成长或发展) 重大作用
负面:adverse(unfavourable)/corrupting/destructive (devastating/disruptive)
不利的/腐蚀的/破坏的
Have inherent advantages/disadvantages  有内在的优点/缺点
e.g. In terms of environmental protection,exporting agricultural products by means of air transportation has its inherentdisadvantages.
Be in a position to do   有条件去做
e.g. Because of the existence of expresstransport such as air freight, people in frigid zone are in a position toacquire more nutritious food and vegetable from the tropical zone.
Be a double-edged sword    ···是一把双刃剑
Equip sb with sth = furnish sb withsth  装备,使有能力,向···提供
Turn on = hinge on   取决于
e.g The environmental protection hinges onthe actual action by the civilians.
A is a key determinant of B   AB的决定因素
e.g. In an individual’s career, tenacity is a key determinant of success.
Be an underlying factor in···   ···潜在/隐含力量
e.g. Human curiosity is an underlying factor in the growing popularity ofnewspapers
Rely (almost exclusively) on = dependon   (几乎全)依靠
e.g. Children should not always rely on parent’s help.
Be considered as = be think of as = beacknowledged as = be regarded as 被认为是
Be served/used as a brenchmark
It turned out that = turn out to be   证明是
E.g. the advancement of technology turnsout be conducive to the mankinds.
Be confronted with···= In the face of···  面临着
e.g. be confronted with/in the face of fierce/stiff/intense competition
Deserve/require(careful/full/serious/sufficient/ special) consideration
需要仔细/全面/认真/足够/特别考虑
Take sth into consideration/account   考虑到, 顾及
A and B are not mutually exclusive    两者并不互相排斥
e.g. This two options are not mutuallyexclusive.
Be no exception to···  也不例外
e.g. There is no exception to this rule inmodern or in accent times.
Does not necessarily mean    并不必然意味着
···be now a commonplace···    司空见惯的事
A and B alike    两者都,同样地
Reach saturation point   到达饱和程度
End up + doing/ adj/ in sth   ···告终
In essence    本质上
In terms of    ···而言
As the case may be, 句子 or 主语+谓语, as thecase may be, 宾语
根据具体情况而定,视情况而定
e.g. Students should be given sufficientautonomy in deciding the courses they take as the case may be.
More often than not, 句子.    通常,往往
e.g. More often than not it is thesemoments that separate the victors from the rest – because they never despair ,and press on when others fade.
往往就是这些时刻将成功者与其他人区分开来——因为成功者从不绝望,会在他人放弃时选择坚持下去。
表示依我而言的词组
From my point of view,
From my perspective,
To my mind,
In my opinion,
To my way of thinking
关于By no means 的应用
Be by no means an exclusive/a uniqueway   绝不是唯一的方法
Be by no means confined to···   绝不局限于
e.g. Poverty and deprivation are by nomeans confined to the north of the country.
Be by no meansfortuitous/coincidential   绝非偶然
e.g. The occurrence of such things is by nomeans fortuitous/ coincidental
Be by no means isolated    绝非孤立/个别
e.g. Such cases, though not prevalent, areby no means isolated.
Be by no means separated from   绝不应该脱离
e.g. Theory should by no means be separatedfrom practice. 理论绝对不应该脱离实际
Be by no means certain  仍未确定的
e.g. It is by no means certain thatgenetrically modified food will benefit humans in the future.  转基因食品能否在未来有益于人类仍是不确定的
Be by no means a perfect way   绝非完善的方法
e.g. This is by no means a perfect way tosolve the problem.
表示例证的句型
···is a good case in point
= one example will suffice to illustratethis point
= a telling(有说服力的) /notorious (臭名昭著的)example is ···
= ···is a representative of ···
表示大量的词组
A+形容词+ number of+可数名词+谓语动词复数
A+形容词+amount of+不可数名词+谓语动词单数(time/money/information/help/data)大量的: Massive/considerable/enormous/ tremendous
不成比例的:disproportionate
小量的:Limited/moderate/small
A wide range of = a vast/impressive arrayof = a wealth of = a host of = a variety of
表示一系列的词组
A series of = a chain of = a sequence of

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参与人数 1威望 +2 金币 +2 收起 理由
无间道 + 2 + 2 谢谢

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xmlxmlxmlxml 发表于 2017-1-8 12:50:33 | 显示全部楼层
很好,不错。收藏了。
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语过情添 发表于 2017-1-11 14:56:00 | 显示全部楼层
不愧是大神,很细致啊
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历史篡改者 发表于 2017-1-16 11:24:51 | 显示全部楼层
:hug:太棒了,里程碑的总结,我正在迷茫徘徊中
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IKERYANG 发表于 2017-1-17 13:14:58 | 显示全部楼层
非常详细,楼主辛苦了
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lq123 发表于 2017-1-19 21:51:26 | 显示全部楼层
太厉害了    致敬
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